Merkle Tree

ChatGPT: A Merkle tree, also known as a hash tree or a binary hash tree, is a data structure used in cryptography and computer science to efficiently verify the integrity and authenticity of large sets of data. It was named after Ralph Merkle, who patented the concept in 1979.

A Merkle tree is constructed by recursively hashing pairs of data (or hashes) until a single hash, known as the Merkle root, is obtained. Here’s a simplified explanation of how it works:

  1. Input Data: The data set is divided into smaller fixed-size blocks (usually binary) or individual pieces of data. Each block or data item is assigned a unique hash value.
  2. Pairing and Hashing: The hashes of the data blocks are paired together, and the pairs are concatenated and hashed again. This process continues until there is only one hash remaining, forming the Merkle root.
  3. Building the Tree: The pairing and hashing process is performed in a binary tree structure, where each level represents a round of hashing. The bottom layer consists of individual data block hashes, and each subsequent layer represents the hashes of the previous layer’s pairs.
  4. Merkle Root: The final result is a single hash value known as the Merkle root, which is placed at the top of the tree. This Merkle root represents a compact and secure summary of all the data in the tree.

Merkle trees are commonly used in blockchain technology to ensure the integrity and efficiency of data stored in the blocks. By including the Merkle root in the block header, the blockchain network can verify that the transactions or data stored within the block haven’t been tampered with. This allows for efficient verification of large amounts of data without needing to store or transmit all the individual data items.

Additionally, Merkle trees facilitate efficient and secure data synchronization in peer-to-peer networks, as only the Merkle root and a small number of hashes need to be transmitted and compared to verify the correctness of the data set.

You tube videos:

This is a very simple explanation with respect to blockchain. It assumes we know what a hash is.
This goes into greater detail, including explaining what a hash is. It tells some use cases of a Merkle Tree, but does not explain how it is used in those case. It covers benefits of Merkle Tree, but does not say how or why. Explains well how blockchain benefits from Merkle Trees.
Goes into greater detail about how the use cases work. It is not for a beginner to understand, but good for those that already understand Merkle Trees and hashing. The part at the end about large files of the GIT section is hard to understand. How it is used in Dynamic databases clusters.
This is an amazing explanation of how Merkle Trees assist in building Peer-to-Peer networks. It also talks about the use of hashing to create addresses for documents based on the content.

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